Doctors Jeff Volek and Stephen Phinney are scholars who have spoken out against the low fat consensus diet and write often about the value in a low carb way of eating, for weight loss, physical endurance and overall health.
They, like many, call a very low carb diet “ketogenic” because it allows the body to produce and use ketones for fuel in the absence of glucose. This has advantages that are clearly illuminated in this great summary “Paleo vs Ketogenic diet” which is on their website.
They point out that the body and the brain are well adapted to using ketones, and some bodies run best on them, yet so many people fear them.
While this article starts out explaining the differences between Paleo and Low Carb ways of eating, it ends with an explanation of why we need not fear ketones, and that we may in fact be a lot healthier (and lose weight!) once we embrace them.